Links have been checked in October 2015.


  • Background / The point of imprisonment

1 Jan Banning, Bureaucratics (Portland, Nazraeli, 2008).

2 For the US as a whole, the number is 1 in 35 (2013):

3 For an explanation of the difference between jails and prisons, see

4 See the infographics elsewhere in this book. See also

5 Carolyn W. Deady, Incarceration and Recidivism: Lessons from Abroad (Pell Center for International Relations and Public Policy, March 2014),


7 Julie Ajinkya, Rethinking How to Address the Growing Female Prison Population (Center for American Progress, 2013),

8 Craig Haney, The Psychological Impact of Incarceration: Implications for Post-Prison Adjustment (University of California, 2001),

9 These and the following figures come from Amnesty International, Death Sentences and Executions In 2014, and Death Penalty,

10 In September 2015, 31 states imposed the death penalty.


12 Amnesty International, Death Penalty.

13 Jeffrey Hood, “Fact check: No proof the death penalty prevents crime,” in Australia Plus (Feb. 25, 2015),

14 Tapio Lappi-Seppälä, “Controlling Prisoner Rates: Experiences From Finland,” in Visiting Experts’ Papers (Unafei, 2008),

15 Tapio Lappi-Seppälä, op. cit.: “The fact that Finland has heavily reduced its prisoner rate has not disturbed the symmetry of Nordic crime rates. The figures start to differentiate only during the 1990s, as reported crime in Norway kept going up, while the Danish figures are going down. However, the imprisonment rates in both countries stay at the same level (Norway between 56 and 60 and Denmark between 63 and 68). The figures also confirm, once again, the general criminological conclusion that crime rates rise and fall according to laws and dynamics of their own, and sentencing policies in turn develop and change according to dynamics of their own; these two systems are fairly independent of one another.”

16 Michael Tonry, “Why Crime Rates Fall, and Why They Don’t,” in Crime and Justice, Volume 43 (2014).

17 Manuel Eisner, What Causes Large-scale Variation in Homicide Rates?, Working Paper (July 2012), See also Pablo Fajnzylber, and Daniel Lederman and Norman Loayza (both of the World Bank!), Inequality And Violent Crime (2001),

18 Manuel Eisner, op. cit.

19 David Downes and Christine Hansen, “Welfare and punishment; The relationship between welfare spending and imprisonment,” in Crime and Society (November 2006),, referring to: Messner, S.E. and Rosenfeld, R., “Political restraint of the market and levels of criminal homicide: a cross national application of institutional-anomie theory,”in Social Forces (June 1997),

20 Martin Daly & Margo Wilson, “Crime and Conflict: Homicide in Evolutionary Psychological Perspective,” (1997), in Crime & Justice, 22,

21 Tapio Lappi-Seppälä, op. cit.

22 Richard G. Wilkinson & Kate Pickett, The Spirit Level: Why More Equal Societies Almost Always Do Better (London, Allen Lane, 2009). See also:

23 Seena Fazel and John Danesh, “Serious mental disorder in 23000 prisoners: a systematic review of 62 surveys,” in The Lancet, vol. 359 (2002),

24 Fazel and Danesh, op. cit.

25 Jan Banning, Down and Out in the South (Utrecht, Ipso Facto 2013): studio portraits of homeless men and women in the Southern states of the US.

26 “United States: Force Against Prisoners With Mental Illness; Pain and Punishment for Symptoms Behind Bars,” Human Rights Watch (2015),

27 E. Fuller Torrey, Aaron D. Kennard and Don Eslinger; et. al., More mentally ill persons are in jails and prisons than hospitals: A survey of the states (Arlington, Treatment Advocacy Center, 2010),

28 Erik Bulten, Henk Nijman and Cees van der Staak, “Psychiatric disorders and personality characteristics of prisoners at regular prison wards,” in International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, Volume 32, Issue 2 (March–April 2009).

29 Martin Daly & Margo Wilson, “An evolutionary psychological perspective on homicide” [PDF], in D. Smith & M. Zahn, eds. Homicide Studies: A Sourcebook of Social Research (1999).


  • Crime in historical perspective

2 Bureau of Justice Statistics. The sharp increase in crime in 2015 suggested by the media seems to be exaggerated, see Bruce Frederick, “About Those Rising Murder Rates: Not So Fast,” The Marshall Project,

3 Manuel Eisner. “Long-Term Historical Trends in Violent Crime,” in Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, Vol. 30, edited by Michael Tonry, (University of Chicago Press, 2003).

4 James B. Given, Society and Homicide in Thirteenth-Century England, (Stanford University Press, 1977).

5 Pieter Spierenburg, “Long-Term Trends in Homicide: Theoretical Reflections and Dutch Evidence, Fifteenth to Twentieth Centuries’’ in The Civilization of Crime: Violence in Town and Country since the Middle Ages, edited by Eric A. Johnson and Eric H. Monkkonen, (University of Illinois Press, 1996). See also other publications by Spierenburg.

5 Manuel Eisner, op. cit., and his various other publications. His population figures contain an element of speculation.

7 Eisner, Manuel Eisner, op. cit.